Sampling sites: habitat overview

The photographs below showcase the typical forest type or notable habitat characteristics found in each sampling site, listed in order of increasing latitude from north to south. The relationship between latitude and elevation at which N. pumilio grows can be clearly observed. Trees in high-elevation sampling sites often exhibit morphological signs of climate-related stress such as krumholz characteristics and curved or bifurcated trunks caused by snow pressure. Two of the populations, labeled “xeric,” are at the extreme eastern edges of the lenga population distribution, where annual mean precipitation is much lower than in the core areas of the species’ distribution.